Letters in response to Dr. Paul A. Magistretti has brought up a good point regarding internal acoustics, construction and the use of electronic sound reinforcement for free-reed instruments. During my last meeting with Peter Soave he proudly showed me the latest innovation on his Pigini bayan: screened vents on the left-hand manual which pointed outward to the audience, not side ward as on other accordions.
Unfortunately, most accordion manufacturers do not even bother to cut holes in the case of the left-hand mechanism to allow the sound to dissipate. Fortunately for me, my own instrument, a Victoria accordion, has left-hand sound holes which allows much of the left-hand music to emerge. Certainly the accordion and bandoneon does not have the acoustical power to solo with a large orchestra, especially with brass and percussion without electronic sound reinforcement.
The concertina was originally designed for parlor music, not orchestra concerts! Regarding the tuning of the bandoneon reeds, musette tuning is not an option, as I believe bandoneons are traditionally tuned with pure intervals. It would be like tuning the piano strings slightly sharp and flat; all you get is a honky-tonk piano, not an instrument suitable for the concert hall. Another problem is the sound of the accordion reeds; they are thin and tinny compared to most other instruments. To compensate for this, accordion builders have created tone chambers within the instrument, heavy wooden baffles which dampen the high frequencies like a muffler on a truck to make the timbre more round and pleasing.
Naturally, this cuts down on the volume considerably. Let's use another analogy and compare the accordion to a singer. Others suggest that the portrayal of the homoeroticism hint at the Western European exoticization of the Asian in an idealized fantasy stereotype of emotional and Colonial submission Eng, Of the many things written and researched about the symbolism and heritage inherent in this work, one thing is certain— the mysterious gender-bending of this tale is one of its strongest and most intriguing allures.
Yet far more than meets the eye is innately woven within the story to yield an exquisite allegory for the Asian spiritual journey. It is here argued that in M. Butterfly , ideals of masculinity and the art of feminine illusion are routinely and mesmerizingly thwarted, challenged, refuted, and reimagined in a political and socioeconomic world full of political deception.
This lens is not only Eurocentric, but highly patriarchal. Even in strict patrilineal Asian households— even in China where boy children are still to this day glorified and baby girls still tragically abandoned or aborted Zhu, — the kind of patriarchy that manifests through a Eurocentric cultural perspective is something still largely incongruous and entirely different than the traditional Asian representations of a vast array of styles of masculinity.
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In the West, the Asian, whether male or female, has often been stereotyped as willingly passive, serene, wise, spiritual, secret, characteristically bowing submissively, and often silent Kim, Asian women are sexualized and exoticized precisely for their diminutive frames and meek, child-like obedience; likewise, Asian men are often stereotypically emasculated. Shockingly, there is an incredible suspension of disbelief present in the story of M. Butterfly required to believe that Song was capable of fooling Gallimard into believing he was a woman for several years even during sexual intercourse.
This strange faith Gallimard seems to sustain through the illusion is perhaps attributed to this enduring subconscious association of the Asian— male and female— with such subtlety and feminine fluidity of motion even the glorification of Asian dance and martial arts is born of an admiration of their characteristically controlled, subtle, and often beautiful movements even in wrestling. This submission he glorifies— even to the point of ludicrous self-deception— allows him to exoticize Song in a disturbingly oppressive philosophical regurgitation of colonist rhetoric.
The submissiveness glamorized here is a consequence of the construct of Orientalism. Orientalism refers to the falsely constructed concept of Eastern culture by Western colonialists , Nakamura. A damaging, limiting stereotype, Orientalism overidealizes aspects of Asian submissiveness and a certain degree of reserve, poise, possession and control. Orientalism exoticizes what the Westerner perceives to be Asian passiveness and a gentle, clean luxury as opposed to the aggression, power, Will, and debauchery of the West. Orientalism also tends to glorify the detached female subtlety and the beauty of such reserve, while simultaneously fearing the perceived savagery of an assumed degenerate, uncivilized nation.
Westerners quickly took to viewing the Orient as primitive and in need of acclimation to the necessary conditioning of Christian European values. This problematic narrative of Orientalism shaped forcibly around the Asian culture contributes to Western foreign policy and the assumption of power the West asserts over the East. Just as a man actively penetrates a passive woman, Europe and, subsequently, the United States of America, has continuously sought— and unfortunately often succeeded— to penetrate and control the Orient just as absolutely as a husband asserts power over his property and wife.
While European Orientalism was purported to justify the colonization and domination of Third World people, early American Orientalism was first invented to exclude Asian immigrants from entering or making a home on American soil…. Because the play M. Indeed, the feminized stereotype of the Asian culture and continent as a whole is disarming as the creation of the concept of Asian feminine passivity was nurtured aggressively in the s. In the real Vietnam as well, many enlisted men took up Vietnamese concubines, wives, and girlfriends, a majority even fathering children there and leaving them without a second thought as they returned home to disenfranchisement, often homelessness, drug addiction, and insanity.
So, too, is herein contained a dark prophecy for a possible future of Western-Eastern political and economic relations: maybe the continuously underestimated East may soon rise to an Empire that, catching the boisterous Eurocentric Republic s off-guard, slithering up like a dragon from the waters, to swallow the West whole. Collins, Patricia Hill. Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. Routledge, Eng, David L. Kim, Minjeong, and Angie Y. Kwan, Peter. Butterfly, and the adventures of Priscilla, queen of the desert.
Kong, Travis SK. Liang, Christopher TH, et al. Ling, Jinqi. Nakamura, R. Butterfly and the problems of anti-essentialism.
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Iwanami Literary Studies , 13 , In the United States, racial tension has always been intensely heated and, all too often, this tension is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of American culture itself. Over time, many movements and organizations have been established to fight for African American equality, even down to ensuring dignified representation of African Americans in the media similar to the Jewish and Italian Anti-Defamation Leagues.
The most prominent of these equal rights organizations is the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
The organization was founded in by both Black and white members with the intention of initiating consolidated efforts towards racial justice and empowerment 22 , including, for example organizing— and, more importantly, funding— various social movements towards ensuring Civil Rights for African Americans. The organization is also well known for various charity efforts spent towards, for example, improving housing and school programs in African American communities to even fighting against stereotypical and degrading portrayals of minority ethnic groups in film and mainstream media, including, most famously, the protests against D.
The NAACP had a long standing reputation of dignity, even sometimes criticized as almost too conservative, but even in its earliest days, it was not immune to criticism about its choices as an establishment to accept or refuse to assist in certain civil rights cases. For example, the NAACP infamously declined to offer assistance or intervention in the horrifying Scottsboro Nine case, erroneously believing they were guilty and seeking to avoid ideological conflicts and political discrediting by affiliating with or interference into what was being handled by the ILD:.
The boys were easily swayed by both organizations but ultimately, the I. However, recently, the once reputable organization has fallen deep into public disapproval again over seeming incompetence and lack of agency in addressing some of the most crucial needs of the African American communities. To the majority of the community that feels their influence outdated or ineffective especially, bitter resentment and a sense of cultural treachery is directed towards the now all-but-forgotten beacon of Black Nobility in Reconstruction and Civil Rights-Era America.
Memorably, the Benjamin Chavis case, involving the epic downfall of what could have been a next generation Civil Rights hero, was one of the first instances of massive financial appropriation to be brought to the forefront 2.
With a conviction dropped inexplicably for arson and substantial damage to a white-owned grocery, the activist worked his way up the political ladder in Washington D. Jesse L. The Donald Sterling case, for example, involves the embarrassing revocation of the lifetime achievement award from the racist, misogynist owner of the L.
Clippers 6. Selling out makes financial sense. Most ironic of all things in an institution dedicated to the dignity of a race, the NAACP has risked more of its institutional credibility in a recent scandal concerning racial misrepresentation. Arguably one of the most controversial public figures and women of alone, Rachel Dolezal has been pretending to be or identifying as Black for an unknown number of years, but the charade became much more public after Dolezal was still blond and paleskinned and identified herself as a white woman — one who had left a black husband and had a biracial child.
Coworkers and relatives began hearing from her or others that her background was mixed race— and even that she had called herself black. When faced with questions of just why his daughter would go through such great strains to perpetuate such an elaborate ruse, Lawrence Dolezal offered his theory:.http://cars.cleantechnica.com/colombia-en-la-primera-mitad-del-siglo.php
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The Rachel Dolezal scandal surfaced during a year in which the flames of ethnic and cultural conflict were fanned high. Between and , several shockingly flagrant cases of recorded instances of overt white police brutality electrified the African American community. Poignantly, Dolezal herself has publicly identified and aligned with transwoman Caitlyn Jenner, formerly famous as Bruce Jenner, the father of the Kardashian clan A white woman passing as an African American woman does not grant her any increase in recognition, validity, credibility, or safety. So the Dolezal controversy begs the puzzling question: why would Rachel go to such lengths to fabricate such an intricately concocted delusion?
Many people are deeply offended by the idea that someone whose family suffered none of the horrifying systemic racism African Americans endure would seem to so gleefully immerse herself in and enjoy the trappings of black culture. But most infuriating to some is the idea that she may be able to retreat comfortably back into a white identity, leaving the racism she claims to have experienced as a black woman behind.
First we must examine the history of passing then analyze how Rachel Dolezal turns the concept on its head and slingshots it back as a smack in the face of African American progress.
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Jews passing for Germans during the Holocaust in Eastern European provinces , often at a grave cost to their sanity and lives. The film adaptations were quite critically acclaimed for their deep sentimentality and for the first time sympathizing the tragic mulatto character even as she remains a stock characterization kept just shy of fully realized, dynamic character development 4. Blackface was popular since it was a caricature of blackness. Apart from blacking up, Hollywood has a history of ignoring talented black female actors.
The legendary Lena Horne lost the role in the film Showboat to Ava Gardner and Dorothy Dandridge also lost roles due to her race during the s. Not everyone agrees Jolie is miscast. Angelina Jolie is an actor playing a character who is at least part white. This is a fascinating bit of cultural development. For the record, the poorest American Blacks would be considered middle class in most of the world. Most disturbing and convoluted in an already confusing phenomena, Dolezal claims her Black husband was sexually and physically abusive.