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A fourth factor that may have had an effect is the type of mouthguard typically worn. If there were differences in the protection afforded by one type of mouthguard compared with another, and the proportions of players wearing the various types changed substantially, the relative risk of injury in the players who wore mouthguards may have changed over the period of the study. Finally, changes to the nature of the sport itself—for example, a large increase or decrease in the typical numbers of tackles per match—may have altered the risk of being injured.

However, whether any such changes would have differentially modified the risk for non-wearers compared with wearers is not known. To confidently assess the relation between mouthguard use and dental injuries would require much larger sample sizes than have been used in most of the previous studies on mouthguard use in rugby. However, given the size of the sample and the frequency of oral injuries in rugby, the validity of such a conclusion must be questioned.

A retrospective study in England examined self reported orofacial injuries in senior players and 69 junior players. This yields a relative rate of injury of 3. Among the junior players, 23 orofacial injuries were reported by 24 non-wearers and 16 injuries by 45 non-wearers. The relative rate of injury among the junior players was 2. Although the sample size in this study was small, the risk estimates are consistent with the relative risk calculated in the New Zealand situation.

The relative effectiveness of the various types of mouthguards available has also received little attention.

Reviews of the role of mouthguards in preventing dental injuries in sports have suggested that dentist fitted mouthguards offer superior fit, comfort, and ability to breathe over the mouth fitted type. He stated that, although a number of factors would necessarily be taken into account in choosing a mouthguard such as relative cost, age of the player, and the effectiveness of the different types , players in higher grades and in more vulnerable positions should invest in a dentist fitted mouthguard.

However, despite the belief of dental experts that dentist fitted mouthguards offer superior protection because of less variability in thickness during the process of construction and greater coverage of the teeth, 33 there have been no studies with sufficient sample sizes and injury numbers to confirm a difference in rugby injury rates in practice. Of the 98 players who were followed up at the end of the season, none had sustained damage to the teeth while wearing either type of mouthguard. What is already known on this topic There is a lack of epidemiological evidence about the effect of wearing mouthguards on dental injuries in contact sports.

The changes to the laws of the sport in New Zealand have been supported by educational initiatives. Since , all New Zealand coaches and referees of all grades of tackle rugby typically under 9 and above have been required to attend compulsory safety seminars. Mouthguard use as a means of preventing dental injuries has been promoted in these seminars and their accompanying resources.

A recent injury surveillance report indicates that, although the rates of both mouthguard wearing and orofacial injuries during practices are substantially lower than during matches, players spend more time in practices than in games. The relative claim rate of 4. In addition, there was a lack of certainty about player numbers in New Zealand and mouthguard wearing rates on a year by year basis.

Even so, it is a step towards estimating the protective effect of mouthguards in rugby, and the large number of both players and claims allows greater confidence to be placed in the effect of mouthguards than was previously possible. The major part of the book consists of poems coming from years spent living and studying overseas and then settling back in New Zealand and starting a family. With its broad scope and variety of lyric styles, Mapping the Distance is a landmark book. Originally published , by Arthur T. Denis Glover wrote New Zealand's most famous poem, yet his work has been out of print for many years.

This selection includes "The Magpies" along with a wide variety of other poems. Poet, wit and controversialist, A. Fairburn was one of the best-known New Zealanders of his time. His friend Douglas Robb saw him "in the role of a cheese starter, just as a cheese starter helps to mature cheese, so Rex helped to mature artistic thought in New Zealand. Eileen Duggan was New Zealand's best known poet while she was writing and publishing. For many years her reputation outside New Zealand exceeded that of any other New Zealand poet. Her poetry shows an undeniable lyric gift and genuine skill in the evocation of atmosphere.

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Sport is the place to discover the best new New Zealand writers. Fifty-seven writers, from Pip Adam to Ashleigh Young, two-thirds fiction by page count and three-quarters poetry by writer, and the focus firmly on emerging talent, Sport 41 is a superb overview of current New Zealand writing.

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Packed with new essays, poetry and fiction from leading and new New Zealand writers, Sport 43 is a superb overview of current New Zealand writing. Packed with new essays, poetry and fiction from 56 leading and new New Zealand writers, Sport 44 is an essential overview of current New Zealand writing. Poet John Gallas interviewed by Bill Manhire.

Front row players received the majority of the injuries, probably due to the exposure to high forces during scrummaging. Fatigue is implicated as a risk factor owing to the higher incidence of injury towards the end of the season and the end of the match for starting players.

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While emphasis should continue to be placed on the prevention of cervical spine injuries, specific strategies to prevent calf muscle strains and shoulder instabilities in scrummaging should also be developed. Brooks, A. ACC has leveraged its sponsorship to influence the event organisation and implement IP initiatives, including: the collection of injury data to obtain injury rates and focus future IP work; compulsory injury management at venues; provision of IP messages to participants; and support for organisers to implement IP in their sport.

Measures of effect include brand recall and appropriateness of sponsorship, impact on IP understanding, and changes in injury rate. Over all sports the estimated injury rates using the proportion of injured people who submitted injury reports were The sponsorship has enabled ACC to reach many people with IP information, collect injury data, and shows early indications of positive impact on injury rates and IP understanding.

Story: Magazines and periodicals

Benefits and limitations of implementing and measuring effectiveness of corporate sponsorship of a community sports IP package will be discussed. Background and purpose: The knowledge and experience of a group of 30 experts from Germany, Austria, France and Switzerland was collated to close the gaps in the knowledge of specifications for helmet and wrist protectors in snow sport. Methods: Using a Delphi survey—that is, a structured series of surveys of experts, a consensus was sought on personal protective gear in snow sport.

Experts from various specialised snow sports sectors participated in the survey. Information was gathered on which articles of protective equipment were practical, and which should be worn and actively promoted in work on accident prevention. Investigations were also made as to whether a ski helmet should differ from a snowboarding helmet and what functions wrist protectors should perform for snowboarders. Results: Almost all the snow sport experts are convinced of the advisability of wearing a helmet.

The experts also believe that measures should be taken to increase the proportion of snowboarders wearing wrist protection. Based on the feedback of the experts, the Swiss Council for Accident Prevention bfu has drawn up 10 requirements for snowboarding wrist protectors, the most important of which are that he wrist protector must have a palmar positioned stabilising element; and that the stabilising element must stretch in a distal direction proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint but no further, and must reach in a proximal direction to the middle of the forearm.

Concussions – The Sport Journal

Conclusions: The experts consider the wearing of a helmet while skiing or snowboarding and the use of wrist protectors while snowboarding to be essential measures for the avoidance of injury. A ski helmet conforming to the EN is suitable for both skiers and snowboarders. This bfu list of specifications for wrist protectors can form the basis for the design of an effective product, serve as a purchasing guide for the consumer, and provide the bfu with the basis for assessment of wrist protectors for the awarding of the bfu safety mark.

Bryant, R. Newton, J. Steele, E. Background: During abrupt deceleration tasks, tibial acceleration is indicative of tibial stability and shock transmitted through the lower limb. Purpose: To examine relationships between knee functionality and tibial acceleration of anterior cruciate ligament ACL deficient and ACL reconstructed patients during landing from a single leg long hop.

Methods: Knee functionality was rated using the Cincinnati Knee Rating System for the involved limb of 10 chronic, functional ACL deficient patients and 27 reconstructed patients 14 using patella tendon PT and 13 using hamstring tendon HT autografts. Results: Pearson product moment correlations revealed a significant moderate negative relationship between knee functionality and time to zero tibial acceleration in the ACL deficient patient, indicating patients who minimised the time of positive tibial acceleration had higher levels of knee functionality.

For the PT group, a significant moderate negative relationship between knee function and time to peak tibial acceleration was found, indicating that early control of peak tibial acceleration was a determining factor following reconstruction using the PT.

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No significant relationships were found between knee functionality and tibial acceleration for the HT patients. Conclusions: The relationships between knee functionality and tibial acceleration suggested that those patients who were better able to arrest acceleration of the tibia during an abrupt deceleration task, whether reconstructed or not, tended to display greater knee functionality. Cameron, B. Gabbe, C. Finch, O.

From the editors...

Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Background: Participation in sport and recreation is widely encouraged for general good health and the prevention of some non-communicable diseases. However, injury is a significant barrier to participation and safety concerns are a factor in the decision to participate. Age adjusted rates of serious injury and death were calculated using participation figures for each sport and general population data. Results: There were cases of serious injury and 48 deaths related to sport or recreation participation.

The rate of serious injury was 1. Motor, power boat, and equestrian sports had the highest rates of serious injury, while the majority of deaths were due to drowning. The majority of sport and recreation related deaths are due to drowning, highlighting this area for prevention efforts. Camillieri, M. Bonifazi, L. Labianca, M.